You're strolling through the local home improvement store with your lovely bride locked at your elbow, and as you pass through the electrical fixture section she says to you, "This ceiling fan is gorgeous! Honey, you would make me so happy if you would install that ceiling fan in our living room." The clerk jumps in at that point and explains the features, and discusses how slick it would be to install the fan speed control, and the dimmer for the light kit. He looks at you at the same time your wife does and he says, "You can handle this one, can't you sir?" You cringe like a frightened canine, and tell her you would love to perform this project for her if you hadn't already made plans to...um...clean off your workbench...all weekend.
Many Do-it-Yourselfers perform carpentry, gardening, painting, and even plumbing. But when it comes to home wiring, fear keeps us from completing projects that increase the value of our home, and give us strong personal satisfaction from the beautiful upgrades we could be performing.
Electrical safety is without question, the most important aspect of any electrical work. And just like anything we do in life, fear comes from 'not knowing'. Imagine what you could accomplish if you could perform home wiring safely and confidently. Imagine saving thousands of dollars over the years, if you could do-it-yourself! It really just takes a common sense approach, but just as important; it demands your undivided attention. It's very important that you do not get in a hurry. Make sure that you have planned your project adequately, and that you've allowed plenty of time to complete your project, or at least if you have to pull off of it and come back to it later, that you find a suitable stopping point, and that you can live without the circuit that you're working on.
All it takes is one mistake; some think that 120 volts is not dangerous. It's not only dangerous...It is lethal.
* Shut the power off to any circuit that you are working on.
* Confirm the power is off with a simple pocket tester, a multi-meter, or lamp, blow dryer or another similar appliance.
* Keep a flashlight near your electrical panel at all times, just in case of a power loss.
* Use fiberglass ladders for any electrical work that you do. Fiberglass ladders are non-conductive. Don't use an aluminum ladder.
* Never work on electrical systems in the rain, or in damp or wet locations, or where power is not completely shut off.
* Wear rubber-soled shoes when performing electrical work, and when possible stand on a rubber mat, or dry wooden floors or sub- floors.
* Never work barefoot or in socks or slippers, and don't assume that it's safe to work without rubber-soled shoes on concrete floors. Concrete is conductive, particularly when it's damp (a good reason to never load or unload your washing machine while you're barefoot standing on a concrete floor).
Anything can conduct electricity if the conditions are right. Even if by definition it's called an insulator. (A conductor allows the flow of electrons, and an insulator resists the flow of electrons). When you turn off the power to a breaker, tape that breaker off. OSHA requires us as contractors to lock it off, and tag it out with a procedure called lock out/tag out. It involves red tags and devices that will lock the breaker off to prevent it from being turned on. (If you have your panel cover off, remember that even when you turn breakers off, there are still energized components in the panel itself!).
In your home, at minimum put tape over the breaker, then close your service panel cover, and put a piece of masking tape across the cover, or a sign that says, "Do Not Open," or "Danger", or something similar, so anybody who approaches that panel will immediately know what's going on. Furthermore, inform your family members that you are doing electrical work so that others are completely aware that you are working on the electrical system.
If you are working with fuse panels instead of breaker panels; when you remove a fuse, use only one hand to remove it. Put your other hand either in your pocket or behind your back; it's a good practice to develop anyway. What that does is keeps you from grabbing a circuit with two hands and providing a path for the electricity to flow through your heart. Now, electricity can still flow through one hand and one foot and pass through your heart, but if you've taken the other precautions I mentioned above, you will minimize your exposure to that hazard.
Another important aspect of safety that frequently goes unmentioned is tool use. It is well worth spending a little extra money to purchase quality hand tools like your lineman pliers, screwdrivers, wire strippers, and other hand tools that you will use for electrical work. For instance, Good wire strippers will prevent you from nicking or skinning the wires. Good screwdrivers will prevent slipping out of screw heads or rounding them out. You get my point; good tools not only improve the quality of your workmanship, but improve your confidence as well. So don't skimp on tools. You can stock your tool pouch with good quality tools for $100 or less. Other safety and workmanship considerations --
Regarding Extension Cords and Power Tools;
When you are using extension cords, be sure to use GFCI protection. Whether that means plugging into a GFCI outlet, or providing a GFCI whip to plug your extension cord in to. Also use GFCI protection for your power tools, particularly if you're using cords or power tools outdoors. A GFCI whip is nothing more than a very short extension cord, if you will, sometimes with multi-tap capability, meaning, that you can plug in more than one cord, and it has a GFCI device that's integral to the whip itself. If there's ever a ground fault, it should prevent you from being shocked.
Regarding Opening Sheetrock and other Finished Surfaces;
Remember, when you cut, saw or drill into walls, ceilings, and floors, pay very close attention to the depth of your work. Be conscientious because, even though you've got the power off to the circuit you're working on, there are most likely wires behind your wall, and you don't want to get into a live circuit behind your wall.
Regarding Protection Equipment;
Safety equipment such as masks for dust, safety glasses for eye protection and gloves to preserve your hands are highly recommended; and in my business, they're mandatory. I require my technicians to wear safety glasses when they're working inside of a panel in case of an arc, or a short circuit that might flash, or throw sparks. You only get one set of eyes. Also...develop the habit of turning your face away from the panel at the very moment you turn on or off a breaker, on the off chance a breaker explodes. Odds are against it, but it has happened.
Never cut the grounding pin off the plug end of an extension cord, or any power tool cord. Tools that have plastic cases may not have a grounding pin, and that's because they're double insulated so a short will not reach the casing of the tool itself. But let's say you have a cord and plug that you're trying to plug in somewhere; for example, to a two-slot receptacle, and you have a grounding pin on your tool or your extension cord, do not cut that pin off. That pin is there to carry a fault away from the tool and protect you, and the wiring. Use an adapter if you have to, and ground fault protection, like I mentioned before (an adapter that has the tab secured to the screw in the cover plate does not gro